What this handout is about

This handout will explain what literature review are and offer insights into the form and construction of literature reviews in the humanities, social sciences, và sciences.

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OK. You’ve got to lớn write a literature review. You dust off a novel and a book of poetry, settle down in your chair, and get ready to lớn issue a “thumbs up” or “thumbs down” as you leaf through the pages. “Literature review” done. Right?

Wrong! The “literature” of a literature reviews refers lớn any collection of materials on a topic, not necessarily the great literary texts of the world. “Literature” could be anything from a set of government pamphlets on British colonial methods in Africa to lớn scholarly articles on the treatment of a torn ACL. & a review does not necessarily mean that your reader wants you to lớn give your personal opinion on whether or not you liked these sources.

What is a literature review, then?

A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, và sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period.

A literature nhận xét can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern và combines both summary and synthesis. A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information. It might give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations. Or it might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates. And depending on the situation, the literature reviews may evaluate the sources và advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant.

But how is a literature reviews different from an academic research paper?

The main focus of an academic research paper is to lớn develop a new argument, and a research paper is likely to contain a literature nhận xét as one of its parts. In a research paper, you use the literature as a foundation and as tư vấn for a new insight that you contribute. The focus of a literature review, however, is lớn summarize và synthesize the arguments & ideas of others without adding new contributions.

Why bởi we write literature reviews?

Literature review provide you with a handy guide lớn a particular topic. If you have limited time to lớn conduct research, literature reviews can give you an overview or act as a stepping stone. For professionals, they are useful reports that keep them up to date with what is current in the field. For scholars, the depth và breadth of the literature review emphasizes the credibility of the writer in his or her field. Literature review also provide a solid background for a research paper’s investigation. Comprehensive knowledge of the literature of the field is essential to lớn most research papers.

Who writes these things, anyway?

Literature review are written occasionally in the humanities, but mostly in the sciences & social sciences; in experiment & lab reports, they constitute a section of the paper. Sometimes a literature đánh giá is written as a paper in itself.

Let’s get lớn it! What should I vì before writing the literature review?


If your assignment is not very specific, seek clarification from your instructor:

Roughly how many sources should you include?What types of sources (books, journal articles, websites)?Should you summarize, synthesize, or critique your sources by discussing a common theme or issue?Should you evaluate your sources?Should you provide subheadings và other background information, such as definitions and/or a history?

Find models

Look for other literature nhận xét in your area of interest or in the discipline and read them lớn get a sense of the types of themes you might want lớn look for in your own research or ways to lớn organize your final review. You can simply put the word “review” in your tìm kiếm engine along with your other topic terms khổng lồ find articles of this type on the mạng internet or in an electronic database. The bibliography or reference section of sources you’ve already read are also excellent entry points into your own research.

Narrow your topic

There are hundreds or even thousands of articles & books on most areas of study. The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to lớn read in order lớn get a good survey of the material. Your instructor will probably not expect you khổng lồ read everything that’s out there on the topic, but you’ll make your job easier if you first limit your scope.

Keep in mind that Libraries have research guides và to databases relevant khổng lồ many fields of study. You can reach out lớn the subject librarian for a consultation:

And don’t forget khổng lồ tap into your professor’s (or other professors’) knowledge in the field. Ask your professor questions such as: “If you had lớn read only one book from the 90’s on topic X, what would it be?” Questions such as this help you khổng lồ find & determine quickly the most seminal pieces in the field.

Consider whether your sources are current

Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible. In the sciences, for instance, treatments for medical problems are constantly changing according lớn the latest studies. Information even two years old could be obsolete. However, if you are writing a đánh giá in the humanities, history, or social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be what is needed, because what is important is how perspectives have changed through the years or within a certain time period. Try sorting through some other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to lớn get a sense of what your discipline expects. You can also use this method to consider what is currently of interest khổng lồ scholars in this field and what is not.

Strategies for writing the literature review

Find a focus

A literature review, lượt thích a term paper, is usually organized around ideas, not the sources themselves as an annotated bibliography would be organized. This means that you will not just simply danh mục your sources & go into detail about each one of them, one at a time. No. As you read widely but selectively in your topic area, consider instead what themes or issues connect your sources together. Bởi vì they present one or different solutions? Is there an aspect of the field that is missing? How well vị they present the material & do they portray it according to lớn an appropriate theory? vì they reveal a trend in the field? A raging debate? Pick one of these themes khổng lồ focus the organization of your review.

Convey it to your reader

A literature đánh giá may not have a traditional thesis statement (one that makes an argument), but you do need to lớn tell readers what to expect. Try writing a simple statement that lets the reader know what is your main organizing principle. Here are a couple of examples:

The current trend in treatment for congestive heart failure combines surgery và medicine.More & more cultural studies scholars are accepting popular media as a subject worthy of academic consideration.

Consider organization

You’ve got a focus, và you’ve stated it clearly & directly. Now what is the most effective way of presenting the information? What are the most important topics, subtopics, etc., that your reviews needs to lớn include? & in what order should you present them? Develop an organization for your đánh giá at both a global và local level:

First, cover the basic categories

Just lượt thích most academic papers, literature review also must contain at least three basic elements: an introduction or background information section; the body of the reviews containing the discussion of sources; and, finally, a conclusion and/or recommendations section to end the paper. The following provides a brief mô tả tìm kiếm of the content of each:

Introduction: Gives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review, such as the central theme or organizational pattern.Body: Contains your discussion of sources và is organized either chronologically, thematically, or methodologically (see below for more information on each).Conclusions/Recommendations: Discuss what you have drawn from reviewing literature so far. Where might the discussion proceed?

Organizing the body

Once you have the basic categories in place, then you must consider how you will present the sources themselves within the body of your paper. Create an organizational method lớn focus this section even further.

To help you come up with an overall organizational framework for your review, consider the following scenario:

You’ve decided to lớn focus your literature đánh giá on materials dealing with sperm whales. This is because you’ve just finished reading Moby Dick, và you wonder if that whale’s portrayal is really real. You start with some articles about the physiology of sperm whales in biology journals written in the 1980’s. But these articles refer khổng lồ some British biological studies performed on whales in the early 18th century. So you check those out. Then you look up a book written in 1968 with information on how sperm whales have been portrayed in other forms of art, such as in Alaskan poetry, in French painting, or on whale bone, as the whale hunters in the late 19th century used to do. This makes you wonder about American whaling methods during the time portrayed in Moby Dick, so you find some academic articles published in the last five years on how accurately Herman Melville portrayed the whaling scene in his novel.

Now consider some typical ways of organizing the sources into a review:

Chronological: If your đánh giá follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials above according lớn when they were published. For instance, first you would talk about the British biological studies of the 18th century, then about Moby Dick, published in 1851, then the book on sperm whales in other art (1968), & finally the biology articles (1980s) và the recent articles on American whaling of the 19th century. But there is relatively no continuity among subjects here. & notice that even though the sources on sperm whales in other art & on American whaling are written recently, they are about other subjects/objects that were created much earlier. Thus, the đánh giá loses its chronological focus.By publication: Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. For instance, you could order a đánh giá of literature on biological studies of sperm whales if the progression revealed a change in dissection practices of the researchers who wrote and/or conducted the studies.

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By trend: A better way lớn organize the above sources chronologically is khổng lồ examine the sources under another trend, such as the history of whaling. Then your review would have subsections according to lớn eras within this period. For instance, the reviews might examine whaling from pre-1600-1699, 1700-1799, và 1800-1899. Under this method, you would combine the recent studies on American whaling in the 19th century with Moby Dick itself in the 1800-1899 category, even though the authors wrote a century apart.Thematic: Thematic review of literature are organized around a topic or issue, rather than the progression of time. However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. For instance, the sperm whale đánh giá could focus on the development of the harpoon for whale hunting. While the study focuses on one topic, harpoon technology, it will still be organized chronologically. The only difference here between a “chronological” và a “thematic” approach is what is emphasized the most: the development of the harpoon or the harpoon technology.But more authentic thematic đánh giá tend to break away from chronological order. For instance, a thematic nhận xét of material on sperm whales might examine how they are portrayed as “evil” in cultural documents. The subsections might include how they are personified, how their proportions are exaggerated, and their behaviors misunderstood. A đánh giá organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to lớn the point made.Methodological: A methodological approach differs from the two above in that the focusing factor usually does not have to vị with the nội dung of the material. Instead, it focuses on the “methods” of the researcher or writer. For the sperm whale project, one methodological approach would be khổng lồ look at cultural differences between the portrayal of whales in American, British, và French art work. Or the review might focus on the economic impact of whaling on a community. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the reviews or the way in which these documents are discussed.Once you’ve decided on the organizational method for the toàn thân of the review, the sections you need to lớn include in the paper should be easy lớn figure out. They should arise out of your organizational strategy. In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period. A thematic reviews would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to lớn the theme or issue.

Sometimes, though, you might need to địa chỉ cửa hàng additional sections that are necessary for your study, but vì not fit in the organizational strategy of the body. What other sections you include in the toàn thân is up to you. Put in only what is necessary. Here are a few other sections you might want to lớn consider:

Current Situation: Information necessary to understand the topic or focus of the literature review.History: The chronological progression of the field, the literature, or an idea that is necessary khổng lồ understand the literature review, if the body toàn thân of the literature nhận xét is not already a chronology.Methods and/or Standards: The criteria you used to select the sources in your literature nhận xét or the way in which you present your information. For instance, you might explain that your đánh giá includes only peer-reviewed articles & journals.

Questions for Further Research: What questions about the field has the review sparked? How will you further your research as a result of the review?

Begin composing

Once you’ve settled on a general pattern of organization, you’re ready to lớn write each section. There are a few guidelines you should follow during the writing stage as well. Here is a sample paragraph from a literature reviews about sexism & language to lớn illuminate the following discussion:

However, other studies have shown that even gender-neutral antecedents are more likely lớn produce masculine images than feminine ones (Gastil, 1990). Hamilton (1988) asked students to complete sentences that required them to lớn fill in pronouns that agreed with gender-neutral antecedents such as “writer,” “pedestrian,” & “persons.” The students were asked to lớn describe any image they had when writing the sentence. Hamilton found that people imagined 3.3 men to each woman in the masculine “generic” condition & 1.5 men per woman in the unbiased condition. Thus, while ambient sexism accounted for some of the masculine bias, sexist language amplified the effect. (Source: Erika Falk và Jordan Mills, “Why Sexist Language Affects Persuasion: The Role of Homophily, Intended Audience, và Offense,” Women và Language19:2).

Use evidence

In the example above, the writers refer to lớn several other sources when making their point. A literature review in this sense is just like any other academic research paper. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence khổng lồ show that what you are saying is valid.

Be selective

Select only the most important points in each source khổng lồ highlight in the review. The type of information you choose lớn mention should relate directly to the review’s focus, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological.

Use quotes sparingly

Falk and Mills vày not use any direct quotes. That is because the survey nature of the literature review does not allow for in-depth discussion or detailed quotes from the text. Some short quotes here và there are okay, though, if you want to lớn emphasize a point, or if what the tác giả said just cannot be rewritten in your own words. Notice that Falk & Mills vày quote certain terms that were coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study. But if you find yourself wanting to lớn put in more quotes, check with your instructor.

Summarize and synthesize

Remember khổng lồ summarize và synthesize your sources within each paragraph as well as throughout the review. The authors here recapitulate important features of Hamilton’s study, but then synthesize it by rephrasing the study’s significance & relating it to lớn their own work.

Keep your own voice

While the literature reviews presents others’ ideas, your voice (the writer’s) should remain front & center. Notice that Falk & Mills weave references to other sources into their own text, but they still maintain their own voice by starting và ending the paragraph with their own ideas và their own words. The sources tư vấn what Falk and Mills are saying.

Use caution when paraphrasing

When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, be sure khổng lồ represent the author’s information or opinions accurately và in your own words. In the preceding example, Falk và Mills either directly refer in the text khổng lồ the author of their source, such as Hamilton, or they provide ample notation in the text when the ideas they are mentioning are not their own, for example, Gastil’s. For more information, please see our handout on plagiarism.

Revise, revise, revise

Draft in hand? Now you’re ready khổng lồ revise. Spending a lot of time revising is a wise idea, because your main objective is lớn present the material, not the argument. So check over your review again to lớn make sure it follows the assignment and/or your outline. Then, just as you would for most other academic forms of writing, rewrite or rework the language of your reviews so that you’ve presented your information in the most concise manner possible. Be sure khổng lồ use terminology familiar to lớn your audience; get rid of unnecessary jargon or slang. Finally, double check that you’ve documented your sources & formatted the reviews appropriately for your discipline. For tips on the revising and editing process, see our handout on revising drafts.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to vị your own research to find additional publications. Please vì chưng not use this các mục as a mã sản phẩm for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips periodically và welcome feedback.

Anson, Chris M., & Robert A. Schwegler. 2010. The Longman Handbook for Writers & Readers, 6th ed. New York: Longman.

Jones, Robert, Patrick Bizzaro, và Cynthia Selfe. 1997. The Harcourt Brace Guide khổng lồ Writing in the Disciplines. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Lamb, Sandra E. 1998. How khổng lồ Write It: A Complete Guide to Everything You’ll Ever Write. Berkeley: Ten tốc độ Press.

Rosen, Leonard J., và Laurence Behrens. 2003. The Allyn & Bacon Handbook, 5th ed. New York: Longman.

Troyka, Lynn Quittman, & Doug Hesse. 2016. Simon và Schuster Handbook for Writers, 11th ed. London: Pearson.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 License.You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill