Guide For Authors


The Quarterly đánh giá of Economics & Finance (QREF) attracts và publishes high chất lượng manuscripts that cover topics in the areas of economics, financial economics and finance. The subject matter may be theoretical, empirical or policy related. Emphasis is placed on quality, originality, clear arguments, persuasive evidence, intelligent analysis and clear writing. At least one Special Issue is published per year. These issues have guest editors, are devoted khổng lồ a single theme and the papers have well known authors. In addition we pride ourselves in being able to provide three lớn four article "Focus" sections in most of our issues. These "Focus" sections have a common theme, may or may not have a guest editor, and often contain papers that were presented in a session at a regional, national or international meeting. These can be published in a very timely manner. Finally, QREF is the journal of the Midwest Economic Association. The editors of QREF place special efforts into working with young authors.

Please see our Guide for Authors for information on article submission. If you require any further information or help, please visit our support Center

• open access • Submission • Submit your article PREPARATION • Queries • Peer đánh giá • Double anonymized nhận xét • Article structure • Essential title page information • Highlights • Abstract • Keywords

• Artwork • Tables • References • đoạn phim • Data visualization • Supplementary material • Research data AFTER ACCEPTANCE • Online proof correction • Offprints tác giả INQUIRIES

Your Paper Your Way We now differentiate between the requirements for new & revised submissions. You may choose lớn submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to lớn put your paper in khổng lồ a "correct format" for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.

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Submission Fee The journal levies a submission fee of US$100.00 for new, unsolicited manuscripts. Submissions will only be considered after payment of the submission fee during the submission process. The submission fee is non-refundable and a paper may be rejected by the Editor without being sent for review. The submission fees are used to support journal related activities and the development of the journal. Submission checklist

You can use this menu to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it lớn the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present: One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details: thư điện tử address Full postal address

Submission checklist You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details. Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with tương tác details:• thư điện tử address• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:Manuscript:• Include keywords• All figures (include relevant captions)• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)• Ensure all figure & table citations in the text match the files provided• Indicate clearly if màu sắc should be used for any figures in printGraphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)Supplemental files (where applicable)

For further information, visit our tư vấn Center.

Ethics in publishing Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

Use of inclusive language Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to lớn all people, is sensitive khổng lồ differences, và promotes equal opportunities. Nội dung should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior lớn another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is không lấy phí from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise lớn seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible lớn avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer lớn personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant và valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend lớn avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate và (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" và "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to lớn help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive. Reporting sex- và gender-based analyses Reporting guidanceFor research involving or pertaining to lớn humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex & gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research kiến thiết according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research"s generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying lớn enhance the precision, rigor và reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs lớn which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer khổng lồ the Sex & Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines và the SAGER guidelines checklist. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial đánh giá of sex & gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please cảnh báo there is no single, universally agreed-upon mix of guidelines for defining sex and gender.

DefinitionsSex generally refers to a mix of biological attributes that are associated with physical và physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal và external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers khổng lồ socially constructed roles, behaviors, & identities of women, men và gender-diverse people that occur in a historical và cultural context and may vary across societies & over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave và interact & how power is distributed in society. Sex và gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations & gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors lớn define the manner in which they are used. In addition lớn this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page offer further insight around sex và gender in research studies.

Changes to authorship Authors are expected to consider carefully the list & order of authors before submitting their manuscript và provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of tác giả names in the authorship menu should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted & only if approved by the journal Editor. To lớn request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in tác giả list & (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to lớn complete a "License Agreement" (more information). Permitted third tiệc ngọt reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author"s choice of user license.

Author rightsAs an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information. supports responsible sharing Find out how you can cốt truyện your research published in journals.

Role of the funding source You are requested lớn identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis & interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; và in the decision khổng lồ submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to lớn state this. Open access Please visit our xuất hiện Access page for more information. An adapted embargo period of 12 months will apply for UK researchers who are grant recipient from the Research Council UK, Wellcome Trust, Higher Education Funding Council for England, và who wish to self-archive their accepted author manuscript. For more information, please follow this link.

Language (usage and editing services) Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors và to conform khổng lồ correct scientific English may wish khổng lồ use the English Language Editing service available from"s author Services. Submission Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details & uploading your files. The system converts your article files lớn a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required khổng lồ typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor"s decision và requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article Please submit your article via Suggesting reviewers Please submit the names & institutional thư điện tử addresses of several potential reviewers.

You should not suggest reviewers who are colleagues, or who have co-authored or collaborated with you during the last three years. Editors vì not invite reviewers who have potential competing interests with the authors. Further, in order lớn provide a broad and balanced assessment of the work, và ensure scientific rigor, please suggest diverse candidate reviewers who are located in different countries/regions from the author group. Also consider other diversity attributes e.g. Gender, race & ethnicity, career stage, etc. Finally, you should not include existing members of the journal"s editorial team, of whom the journal are already aware.

Note: the editor decides whether or not lớn invite your suggested reviewers.

Queries For questions about the editorial process (including the status of manuscripts under review) or for technical support on submissions, please visit our support Center.

Peer review This journal operates a double anonymized reviews process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to lớn assess the scientific chất lượng of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor"s decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate lớn products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal"s usual procedures, with peer reviews handled independently of the relevant editor và their research groups. More information on types of peer review. Double anonymized review This journal uses double anonymized review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. Lớn facilitate this, please include the following separately:Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors" names, affiliations, acknowledgements & any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding tác giả including an email address.Anonymized manuscript (no author details): The main toàn thân of the paper (including the references, figures, tables & any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors" names or affiliations.

Use of word processing software It is important that the tệp tin be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, bởi not use the word processor"s options lớn justify text or to hyphenate words. However, vì use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table & not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, lớn align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to lớn that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide khổng lồ Publishing with Cảnh báo that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork. Lớn avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised khổng lồ use the "spell-check" & "grammar-check" functions of your word processor. LaTeX You are recommended to use the article class elsarticle.cls to prepare your manuscript và BibTeX khổng lồ generate your bibliography.Our LaTeX site has detailed submission instructions, templates & other information.

Article structure Subdivision - numbered sections Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: vì chưng not just refer to "the text". Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

Introduction State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Material & methods Provide sufficient details lớn allow the work to lớn be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, và indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks & also cite the source. Any modifications lớn existing methods should also be described.

Theory/calculation A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background lớn the article already dealt with in the Introduction & lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis. Results Results should be clear & concise.

Discussion This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations & discussion of published literature. Conclusions The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or size a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Appendices If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) và so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc. Essential title page information • Title. Concise và informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.• Author names và affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) & family name(s) of each tác giả and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can showroom your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors" affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author"s name & in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the thư điện tử address of each author.• Corresponding author.

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Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing và publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology & Materials. Ensure that the thư điện tử address is given & that tương tác details are kept up to lớn date by the corresponding author.• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote lớn that author"s name. The address at which the tác giả actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Highlights Highlights are mandatory for this journal as they help increase the discoverability of your article via tìm kiếm engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights. Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable tệp tin in the online submission system. Please use "Highlights" in the file name và include 3 khổng lồ 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).

Abstract A concise & factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results & major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able lớn stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) và year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. Từ khóa Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general và plural terms và multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keyword will be used for indexing purposes.

Classification codes Please provide up to lớn 6 standard JEL codes. The available codes may be accessed at JEL. Abbreviations Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote lớn be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Acknowledgements Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to lớn the title or otherwise. Danh mục here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.). Formatting of funding sources các mục funding sources in this standard way lớn facilitate compliance to lớn funder"s requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health ; the Bill và Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA ; and the United States Institutes of Peace .

It is not necessary lớn include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants và awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Units Follow internationally accepted rules và conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI. Math formulae Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible & use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text & list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Vì not include footnotes in the Reference list. Artwork

Electronic artwork General points• Make sure you use uniform lettering và sizing of your original artwork. • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option. • Aim to lớn use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar. • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text. • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files. • Provide captions to illustrations separately. • kích thước the illustrations close lớn the desired dimensions of the published version. • Submit each illustration as a separate file.• Ensure that màu sắc images are accessible khổng lồ all, including those with impaired màu sắc vision.A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.FormatsIf your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply "as is" in the native document format. Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "Save as" or convert the images khổng lồ one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, và line/halftone combinations given below): EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts. TIFF (or JPEG): màu sắc or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to lớn a minimum of 300 dpi. TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black và white pixels) line drawings, keep khổng lồ a minimum of 1000 dpi. TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep lớn a minimum of 500 dpi.Please bởi not: • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels và limited mix of colors; • Supply files that are too low in resolution; • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) & with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable màu sắc figures then will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect và other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in màu sắc in the printed version. For màu sắc reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork. Figure captions Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached khổng lồ the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) và a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next khổng lồ the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text và place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them vày not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules và shading in table cells. References

Citation in text Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference menu (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results và personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference danh sách they should follow the standard reference style of the journal & should include a substitution of the publication date with either "Unpublished results" or "Personal communication". Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the cống phẩm has been accepted for publication. Web references As a minimum, the full URL should be given và the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Website references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text và including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: tác giả name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Showroom immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The identifier will not appear in your published article. Preprint references Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central khổng lồ your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

References in a special issue Please ensure that the words "this issue" are added to any references in the menu (and any citations in the text) lớn other articles in the same Special Issue. Reference management software Most journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that tư vấn Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to lớn select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal"s style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references và citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to lớn remove field codes from different reference management software.

video clip accepts video clip material và animation sequences to tư vấn and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have đoạn clip or animation files that they wish to lớn submit with their article are strongly encouraged khổng lồ include link to these within the body toàn thân of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to lớn the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to lớn the clip file"s content. In order lớn ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the tệp tin in one of our recommended tệp tin formats with a preferred maximum kích thước of 150MB per file, 1GB in total. đoạn clip and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in website products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply "stills" with your files: you can choose any frame from the đoạn clip or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons và will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since đoạn phim and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content. Data visualization Include interactive data visualizations in your publication & let your readers interact & engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here khổng lồ find out about available data visualization options and how lớn include them with your article.

Supplementary material Supplementary material such as applications, images và sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article & supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish khổng lồ make changes to lớn supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure khổng lồ provide an updated file. Bởi not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the "Track Changes" option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version. Research data This journal encourages and enables you to mô tả data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you khổng lồ interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to lớn the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. Lớn facilitate reproducibility và data reuse, this journal also encourages you to chia sẻ your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods & other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged khổng lồ cite the data in your manuscript & reference list. Please refer to lớn the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing và using research data và other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. collaborates with a number of repositories to liên kết articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to lớn underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to links your datasets lớn your article. When available, you can directly links your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next lớn your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can links to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Data statement khổng lồ foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to lớn access or unsuitable to lớn post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Online proof correction khổng lồ ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an thư điện tử with a links to our online proofing system, allowing annotation & correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to lớn MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also bình luận on figures/tables và answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.If preferred, you can still choose to lớn annotate và upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send khổng lồ authors, including alternative methods lớn the online version và PDF.We will bởi vì everything possible lớn get your article published quickly và accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness & correctness of the text, tables và figures. Significant changes khổng lồ the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important lớn ensure that all corrections are sent back lớn us in one communication. Please kiểm tra carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share link providing 50 days không tính tiền access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share links can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access vị not receive a Share liên kết as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect và can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to lớn ways to get in touch.You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.

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